Découvrez comment réduire la fréquence de ces situations et favoriser un hippocampe sain, qui est lié à une diminution des risques de la maladie d’Alzheimer.
La stratégie spatiale repose sur une partie du cerveau appelée l’hippocampe. Cette stratégie consiste à créer des liens entre des points de repère, tels que des bâtiments ou des parcs, aﬁn de concevoir des cartes cognitives (cartes mentales) d’une région. L’hippocampe est aussi impliqué dans la mémoire épisodique, c’est-à-dire la mémoire d’évènements vécus dans leur contexte temporel et spatial.
La stratégie de réponse repose sur une autre région du cerveau nommée le noyau caudé. Cette stratégie implique l’apprentissage d’un trajet en effectuant une séquence de mouvements (ex.: tourner à droite) à partir de points spéciﬁques (ex.: après l’hôpital). La stratégie de réponse n’implique pas la formation d’une carte cognitive.
Les cartes cognitives nous permettent de prendre des raccourcis pour nous rendre à une destination connue, et ce, à partir d’un nouveau point de départ.
La stratégie de réponse peut dominer sur la stratégie spatiale et ceci peut mener à la détérioration de l’hippocampe, ce qui augmente les risques de troubles neurologiques et psychiatriques.
Par contre, les stratégies de réponse sont efﬁcaces pour vous aider à créer de bonnes habitudes.
Vous ne pouvez utiliser qu’une stratégie à la fois. Ainsi, vous ne pouvez pas utiliser les deux simultanément.
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Expert de la relation humaine
From the American Heart Association to the President of the United States, a lot has been said recently about the benefits of omega-3's. In the early 1980's, researchers noticed that tribal people native to Greenland had an astoundingly low incidence of inflammatory conditions like psoriasis, colitis, and diabetes. A study was conducted and scholars determined that the secret to the health of these people lay in their diet, which is rich in coldwater fish and, more importantly, the omega-3 fatty acids found in these fish. In the intervening years, omega-3's have been linked with not only reducing the severity of psoriasis, eczema and other skin conditions, but a host of health benefits ranging from reducing cholesterol to combating depression!
Omega-3's are part of a group of essential fatty acids which our bodies are unable to synthesize on our own. Simply put, we are unable to produce omega-3's, so they must be acquired from outside sources. In nutrition, important omega-3's include α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Both DHA and EPA are commonly found in fish oils, while good sources for ALA include seeds such as flax and pumpkin, as well as walnuts.
It is also important to understand the relationship between omega-3 fatty acids and omega-6 fatty acids. Omega-6 fatty acids are found in cereals, bread, baked goods, and some vegetables and, when overconsumed, can actually increase inflammation and allergic response in some individuals. Though some omega-6 is certainly necessary, it is thought that most Western diets contain far too much of it in relation to omega-3. Omega-3 fatty acids tend to have the opposite effect on the system, reducing inflammation, and may counter the effects of too much omega-6 in the body.
A.P. Simopoulos of the Center for Genetics, Nutrition and Health has found information that suggests that humans evolved on a diet with a ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids of approximately 1:1. The modern-day ratio is ranges anywhere from approximately 10:1 to 25:1! This indicates that Western diets are seriously lacking in omega-3 fatty acids, compared with the diet on which genetic patterns were established and humans evolved. Consumption of omega-3 through supplementation or eating certain plants and fish is known to modulate the balance of lipid inflammatory mediators, and can thereby make a valuable contribution in the treatment of inflammatory skin disorders. Modern nutritional science has developed new insight into the relation between food intake and health, and consumption of omega-3 fatty acids appears to be biologically relevant for optimal skin health.
Inflammatory skin conditions such as psoriasis often greatly improve when the proper amounts and concentrations of essential fatty acids are consumed. Omega-3 many contribute to reduction in the number of flare-ups as well as the severity of scaling and redness. In general, omega-3 supplementation usually improves skin moisture and appearance, as well as dry skin and eczema.
Numerous studies and trials have been conducted to test the efficacy of omega-3's on skin health and psoriasis. Here are just a few that illustrate the promising results of this amazing fatty acid!
The results of these and many other studies clearly demonstrate the link between skin health improvement and omega-3's. The scientific community is still trying to find a direct link between omega-3 fatty acids and psoriasis. Several studies have actually found little or no improvement from the use of omega-3. Notwithstanding, most researchers and practitioners would agree that adding omega-3 to your diet is a wise choice. When choosing a supplement, it's important that you consider a high-quality pharmaceutical-grade product such as that contained in DermaEssentials™.
Scientists hypothesized that DHA and EPA would prove to be a useful tool in helping reduce inflammatory conditions such as psoriasis when they started studying the benefits of omega-3's. As studies continued, their expectations were confirmed, but they also discovered that omega-3's were beneficial for a wide range of other afflictions. Heart disease, inflammatory conditions, and some neurological afflictions also have a positive response to omega-3!
Omega-3's are particularly good at reducing inflammation in the body. A study conducted on patients with intestinal disorders such as colitis and Crohn's disease found that subjects taking fish oil supplements required far less potentially harmful steroids to treat their conditions than those taking a placebo. Most holistic practitioners are keenly aware that the state of the intestinal tract directly affects the state of many other tissues—including skin health.
Not only do omega-3's have the potential to reduce inflammation around the heart and in the veins and arteries, but they have also been shown to significantly diminish the incidence of heart attacks and strokes when taken as recommended. Omega-3's relax the arteries and encourage blood to move more quickly through them. Hypertension can also be reduced, and omega-3's are also suggested for assistance in lowering blood pressure! Cholesterol levels are also affected by omega-3 consumption: individuals taking them often experience a drop in LDL levels and an increase in HDL or "good" cholesterol levels. The American Heart Association recommends that when possible, people should include omega-3's in their diet as a preventative measure against heart disease.
Individuals suffering from schizophrenia often have difficulty processing fatty acids, and frequently show low levels of DHA and EPA. Omega-3's may also reduce the amount of interleukin-2, a substance that may cause schizophrenia-like symptoms in some individuals. Rates of depression in countries where people regularly consume lots of fish, and therefore omega-3's, are far lower than those in countries where lesser amounts are eaten. Recent studies have also linked omega-3 to a reduction in severity and regularity of attention deficit disorder in children.
If you are taking certain heart medications or suffering from a bleeding disorder (such as hemophilia or von Willebrand's), you should not be taking DHA/EPA supplements except under the advice of a physician. Supplements containing EPA are not recommended for infants or small children without healthcare provider surveillance because they can upset the balance between DHA and EPA during early development. This suggests that pregnant women should also be cautious about taking fish oil supplements and clear their use with their OB/GYN or nurse midwife. Fish oil may be associated with side effects such as abdominal discomfort and loose stools. In addition, they may lengthen bleeding time slightly. Those taking blood-thinning medications should discuss the use of fish oil capsules with their medical professional. Consumption of DHA/EPA may also increase antioxidant requirements in the body. Taking extra vitamin E along with omega-3 may be helpful. Consult your healthcare provider before adding any new herbs or supplements to your existing medication regimen.
Adverse effects can include the following:
|Flaxseed oil, 1 tbsp (14 g)||57||8.0||16||0.28:1||The richest known source of ALA. Flaxseed oil is highly unstable and should not be heated.|
|Flaxseed, whole, 2 tbsp (24 g)||57||5.2||16||0.28:1||Keep at room temperature.|
|Flaxseed, ground, 2 tbsp (24 g)||57||3.8||16||0.28:1||Best kept refrigerated or frozen.|
|Greens (mixed), 1 cup (56 g)||56||0.1||11||0.19:1||Fat in greens is >50% ALA; however, because total fat is so low, they are not significant contributors to intake for most people.|
|Hempseed oil, 1 tbsp (14 g)||19||2.7||57||3:1||One of the few foods that contains GLA (1.7% GLA).|
|Walnuts, 1 oz (1/4 cup; 28 g)||14||2.6||58||4:1||Highest n-3 content of any common nut; only the candlenut has more (30% ALA).|
|Canola oil, 1 tbsp (14 g)||11||1.6||21||2:1||Excellent n-6-to-n-3 ratio. To avoid the genetically engineered canola, buy certified organic.|
|Soybean oil, 1 tbsp (14 g)||7||0.9||51||7:1||Not the best choice for general use because of high n-6 content.|
|Soybeans, 1 cup cooked (172 g)||7||1.0||50||7:1||Can make a significant contribution to total ALA intake.|
|Tofu, firm, 1/2 cup (4.5 oz; 126 g)||7||0.7||50||7:1||Same as soybeans.|
From Davis & Kris-Etherton (2003). Achieving optimal essential fatty acid status in vegetarians: Current knowledge and practical implications. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 78 (3), 640S-646S.
By now you might be wondering, "So why isn't everyone taking omega-3?" Well, unless an individual is suffering from a blood clotting disorder or taking certain heart medications, the answer is, they probably should be! In the interst of raising awareness for better health, the Bush administration asked the both the Departments of Health and Human Services and Agriculture to promote the inclusion of omega-3's in a healthy diet. The American Heart Association endorses their use to increase heart health. Whereas DHA is normally found in breast milk, baby formula-manufacturing companies are now adding it to infant formulas to promote increased health in bottle-fed infants.
While the FDA approves the use of omega-3's for improving health, they have yet to establish RDA's (recommended daily allowances) for them. Most researchers agree that a approximately 100-200 mg DHA and 200-400 mg EPA are sufficient amounts for most adults. But with certain conditions, individuals may need between 2-4 grams total per day of combined omega-3's to make an observable difference in those health concerns, such as a shift in the cholesterol profile or a reduction in inflammatory conditions like psoriasis. Most Americans are unable to include cold-water fish such as salmon, mackerel or sardines in their daily diet, not coming close to the suggested three times per week. Many of us are also concerned about high levels of toxins found in the larger fish species. These issues can be circumvented by taking omega-3's in the form of a pharmaceutical-grade fish-oil supplement.
You may have seen or heard that flaxseed oil is a good source of omega-3's and wonder if it has the same health benefits as fish oil. Although flax seed does in fact contain omega-3's, many leading experts still recommend fish oil as the best source. Plant-based supplements contain ALA, which our bodies are able to convert to EPA and DHA, but researchers are still unsure how effectively. In his book The Omega-3 Connection, Dr. Andrew Stoll explains, "Although the scientific literature is mixed on this issue, humans may be unable to convert enough ALA to EPA and DHA to achieve optimal levels of these long-chain omega-3's." Another problem with flax oil is its short shelf life. Flax oil needs to be used quickly or it oxidizes and becomes rancid, a quality that may have a pro-inflammatory affect. Because of its unstable nature, flax seed oil does not travel very well. Finally, most of the research on the positive uses of omega-3's has focused on the EPA and DHA obtained from fish oil.
It requires gallons of health-store grade omega-3 fish oils to concentrate and produce just one gallon of the pharmaceutical-grade fish oil used in DermaEssentials™ Skin Care Packs. Our program delivers 1320 mg of EPA and 680 mg of DHA each day (just over 2 grams) in the form of four softgel tablets. Ours is a concentrated marine fish oil—the highest quality available. Our fish oil has gone through an extensive molecular distillation process to ensure purity. The softgel capsules contained in the DermaEssentials™ packets are enteric-coated. Enteric coating is a protective coating placed around the oral softgel tablet that allows the omega-3 to reach the intestines without being dissolved by the stomach's acid first. Dissolving omega-3 in the small intestine maximizes the body's absorption of omega-3 essential fatty acids. It also cuts down on the fishy aftertaste and fish burps often associated with marine lipid supplementation. Further absorption is aided by the digestive enzymes contained in the DermaEssentials™ formula and use of our DermaDetox™ colon and liver cleansing system.
Pharmaceutical-grade, enteric-coated omega-3 tablets are priced at two to three times the cost of standard fish oil supplements (i.e., usually around $15 for 60 softgels at 660 EPA mg and 340 mg DHA, or $30 at the DermaEssential™ levels). Typically, high-grade omega-3 brands (like DermaEssentials™) have more than double the omega-3 concentration of ordinary brands.
DermaEssentials™ skin care packs—Four nutritional formulas in one convenient pack to provide the nutritional foundation needed to stimulate the healing process from within. They travel easily, and are designed to be taken twice daily with meals.
In an independent review of 500 supplement products available in the United States and Canada, the DermaEssentials™ base nutritional formula (prior to the addition of EPA/DHA—concentrated marine fish oil, digestive enzymes, and the 4 billion multiprobiotics included in our full packet) ranked higher than 489 other formulas on 14 criteria.
To read more about the excellent base of support we offer, visit the DermaEssentials™ page. You can try DermaHarmony products risk-free for 37 days. If you are not satisfied with your purchase for any reason, simply return the empty bottles for a full refund of the product price (less shipping and handling), no questions asked. If you would like to speak with one of our Digestive/Skin Health Specialists, call 1-800-827-3730.
Read on for the answers you seek, then give us a call if you would like additional guidance.
Radiant skin begins with your diet! You may be surprised to learn that what you eat can dramatically affect the condition of your skin. Perhaps you remember a friend or family member warning you about chocolate and French fries causing acne back in high-school, and dismissed it as myth. In fact, they weren't that far off-base with their warnings!
Vitamin D-3 and the skin. Although there is currently no proven cure for psoriasis, recent research indicates there are numerous health benefits to vitamin D supplementation, supporting relief from many inflammatory ailments and medical conditions. We believe this includes psoriasis!
Candida. If you were able to gather up and weigh the bacteria in your digestive system, researchers estimate the total would be about four pounds! Under ideal circumstances, friendly microorganisms line our intestines and perform many functions that aid in digestion, benefitting the overall health of the body.
At DermaHarmony, our goals are to educate chronic skin care suffers about dermatology, share what contributes to health and wellness, and support our readers in any way we can. We manufacture and sell two soaps in our store that help with a variety of skin conditions. They're worth consideration if you have a condition that can be helped with pyrithione zinc, sulfur, or salicylic acid.
|Radiant skin begins with your diet!
You may be surprised to learn that what you eat can dramatically affect the condition of your skin. Perhaps you remember a friend or family member warning you about chocolate or french fries causing acne back in high school, and dismissed it as myth. In fact, they weren't that far off-base with their warnings!
|Vitamin D-3 and the Skin
Although there is currently no proven cure for psoriasis, recent research indicates there are numerous health benefits to vitamin D supplementation, supporting relief from many inflammatory ailments and medical conditions. We believe this includes psoriasis!
If you were able to gather up all the bacteria in your digestive system, researchers estimate the total would weigh about four pounds! Under ideal circumstances these bacteria live in our intestines, quietly performing many functions that aid in digestion and benefit the overall health of the body.
Elimination Diet for Skin Conditions
There is something that you do every day that can create problems for your skin. To you, your skin problem may be called psoriasis, eczema, rosacea or acne, but to your skin it is an inflammatory reaction, and the source of that inflammation may very likely be the foods that you are putting in your mouth, into your digestive system.
Diet, Insulin, and Your Skin
Acne is commonly thought of as a teenage affliction, compounding for young sufferers the often self-conscious awkwardness of adolescence with the embarrassment of unattractive skin eruptions. When acne persists into later stages of life, or shows up unexpectedly in older adults, the often unsightly rash can be no less socially distracting and awkward.
A probiotic is a living microorganism which, when administered in sufficient amounts, confers a health benefit to its host. Two of the most common probiotics, Lactobacillus acidophilus and the group known as bifidobacteria, are commonly found in the gut and assist the body with a number of functions. The digestive system is inhabited by billions of these bacteria, collectively referred to as intestinal microflora.
Omega-3—Reference Documents and Further Reading
Principal Author: K. Kastelein, Editor-in-Chief
Date of Publication: 09/09/2006