international reference strains: Topics by Science.govSUMMARYTheInternationalAssociation of Geodesy released in July 2015 a resolution for the definition and realisation of anInternationalHeightReferenceSystem (IHRS). According to this resolution, the IHRS coordinates are potential differencesreferringto the equipotential surface of the Earth's gravity field realised by the conventional value W0 = 62 636 853.4 m2s-2. A main component of the IHRS realisation is the integration of the existing height systems into the global one; i.e. existing vertical coordinates should bereferredto one and the samereferencelevel realised by the conventional W0. This procedure is known as vertical datum unification and its main result are the vertical datum parameters, i.e., the potential differences between the local and the globalreferencelevels. In this paper, we rigorously derive the observation equations for the vertical datum unification in terms of potential quantities based on the geodetic boundary value problem (GBVP) mænds ure

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  1. Vertical datum unification for the International Height Reference System (IHRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, Laura; Sideris, Michael G.

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARYThe <span class="hlt">International</span> Association of Geodesy released in July 2015 a resolution for the definition and realisation of an <span class="hlt">International</span> Height <span class="hlt">Reference</span> System (IHRS). According to this resolution, the IHRS coordinates are potential differences <span class="hlt">referring</span> to the equipotential surface of the Earth's gravity field realised by the conventional value W0 = 62 636 853.4 m2s-2. A main component of the IHRS realisation is the integration of the existing height systems into the global one; i.e. existing vertical coordinates should be <span class="hlt">referred</span> to one and the same <span class="hlt">reference</span> level realised by the conventional W0. This procedure is known as vertical datum unification and its main result are the vertical datum parameters, i.e., the potential differences between the local and the global <span class="hlt">reference</span> levels. In this paper, we rigorously derive the observation equations for the vertical datum unification in terms of potential quantities based on the geodetic boundary value problem (GBVP) approach. Those observation equations are then empirically evaluated for the vertical datum unification of the North American and South American height systems. In the first case, simulations performed in North America provide numerical estimates about the impact of omission errors and direct and indirect effects on the vertical datum parameters. In the second case, a combination of local geopotential numbers, ITRF coordinates, satellite altimetry observations, tide gauge registrations and high-resolution gravity field models is performed to estimate the level differences between the South American height systems and the global level W0. Results show that indirect effects vanish when a satellite-only gravity field model with a degree higher than n ≥ 180 is used for the solution of the GBVP. However, the component derived from satellite-only global gravity models has to be refined with terrestrial gravity data to minimise the omission error and its effect on the vertical datum parameter</p> </li> <li> <p><span>Complete Genome Sequences of Bordetella pertussis Vaccine <span class="hlt">Reference</span> <span class="hlt">Strains</span> 134 and 10536</span></p> <p>PubMed Central</p> <p>Peng, Yanhui; Loparev, Vladimir; Batra, Dhwani; Burroughs, Mark; Johnson, Taccara; Juieng, Phalasy; Rowe, Lori; Tondella, M. Lucia; Williams, Margaret M.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Vaccine formulations and vaccination programs against whooping cough (pertussis) vary worldwide. Here, we report the complete genome sequences of two divergent Bordetella pertussis <span class="hlt">reference</span> <span class="hlt">strains</span> used in the production of pertussis vaccines. PMID:27635001</p> </li> <li> <p><span>Transportation of reagents, <span class="hlt">reference</span> materials and samples: the <span class="hlt">international</span> perspective.</span></p> <p>PubMed</p> <p>Pearson, J E; Edwards, S</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">International</span> Regulations for the transport of infectious substances, which could include reagents, <span class="hlt">reference</span> material and samples, are based on the 13th revision of the United Nations Model Regulations and are the standard for transport of infectious substances by all means of transportation. The 13th revision, effective January 2005 and further amended in March and July 2005, made major improvements in these shipping regulations. They specifically exempt certain substances, including those that have been neutralized or inactivated to destroy any pathogens and samples from "normal" animals. Infectious substances are divided into Category A, which includes primarily cultures of the more pathogenic agents and Category B, which includes all other substances that do not meet the Category A criteria. Tissue specimens, submitted for diagnosis, are included in Category B. Category A shipments must have a Dangerous Goods Certificate and meet other requirements; Category B shipments do not. The National requirements, such as import permits, and certain airline restrictions must also be met.</p> </li> <li> <p><span>Equatorial F1 characteristics and the <span class="hlt">international</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> ionosphere model</span></p> <p>NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</p> <p>Adeniyi, J. O.</p> <p>1996-07-01</p> <p>Average values of the F1 critical frequency (f0F1) and the height of the F1 ledge (hmF1) for Ibadan (Latitude 7.4°N, Longitude 3.9°E) were used for this study. Well-defined F1 characteristics are observed during winter at low solar activity. <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> ionosphere (IRI) does not predict F1 parameters during this season. Deviation of predicted F1 electron density (NF1) by the IRI model from observed values are less than 10% for all seasons of low solar activity, when IRI predicts NF1. Higher percentage deviations are observed during summers of high solar activity. IRI overestimates hmF1. Deviations from experimental values vary from 4 to 35%.</p> </li> <li> <p><span>The <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Ionosphere Today and in the Future</span></p> <p>NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</p> <p>Bilitza, Dieter; McKinnell, Lee-Ane; Reinisch, Bodo; Fuller-Rowell,Tim</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">international</span> <span class="hlt">reference</span> ionosphere (IRI) is the <span class="hlt">internationally</span> recognized and recommended standard for the specification of plasma parameters in Earth's ionosphere. It describes monthly averages of electron density, electron temperature, ion temperature, ion composition, and several additional parameters in the altitude range from 60 to 1,500 km. A joint working group of the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) and the <span class="hlt">International</span> Union of Radio Science (URSI) is in charge of developing and improving the IRI model. As requested by COSPAR and URSI, IRI is an empirical model being based on most of the available and reliable data sources for the ionospheric plasma. The paper describes the latest version of the model and reviews efforts towards future improvements, including the development of new global models for the F2 peak density and height, and a new approach to describe the electron density in the topside and plasmasphere. Our emphasis will be on the electron density because it is the IRI parameter most relevant to geodetic techniques and studies. Annual IRI meetings are the main venue for the discussion of IRI activities, future improvements, and additions to the model. A new special IRI task force activity is focusing on the development of a real-time IRI (RT-IRI) by combining data assimilation techniques with the IRI model. A first RT-IRI task force meeting was held in 2009 in Colorado Springs. We will review the outcome of this meeting and the plans for the future. The IRI homepage is at http://www.IRI.gsfc.nasa.gov</p> </li> <li> <p><span>First <span class="hlt">International</span> Symposium on <span class="hlt">Strain</span> Gauge Balances. Part 2</span></p> <p>NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</p> <p>Tripp, John S (Editor); Tcheng, Ping (Editor)</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>The first <span class="hlt">International</span> Symposium on <span class="hlt">Strain</span> Gauge Balances was sponsored and held at NASA Langley Research Center during October 22-25, 1996. The symposium provided an open <span class="hlt">international</span> forum for presentation, discussion, and exchange of technical information among wind tunnel test technique specialists and <span class="hlt">strain</span> gauge balance designers. The Symposium also served to initiate organized professional activities among the participating and relevant <span class="hlt">international</span> technical communities. Over 130 delegates from 15 countries were in attendance. The program opened with a panel discussion, followed by technical paper sessions, and guided tours of the National Transonic Facility (NTF) wind tunnel, a local commercial balance fabrication facility, and the LaRC balance calibration laboratory. The opening panel discussion addressed "Future Trends in Balance Development and Applications." Forty-six technical papers were presented in 11 technical sessions covering the following areas: calibration, automatic calibration, data reduction, facility reports, design, accuracy and uncertainty analysis, <span class="hlt">strain</span> gauges, instrumentation, balance design, thermal effects, finite element analysis, applications, and special balances. At the conclusion of the Symposium, a steering committee representing most of the nations and several U.S. organizations attending the Symposium was established to initiate planning for a second <span class="hlt">international</span> balance symposium, to be held in 1999 in the UK.</p> </li> <li> <p><span>First <span class="hlt">International</span> Symposium on <span class="hlt">Strain</span> Gauge Balances. Pt. 1</span></p> <p>NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</p> <p>Tripp, John S. (Editor); Tcheng, Ping (Editor)</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>The first <span class="hlt">International</span> Symposium on <span class="hlt">Strain</span> Gauge Balances was sponsored and held at NASA Langley Research Center during October 22-25, 1996. The symposium provided an open <span class="hlt">international</span> forum for presentation, discussion, and exchange of technical information among wind tunnel test technique specialists and <span class="hlt">strain</span> gauge balance designers. The Symposium also served to initiate organized professional activities among the participating and relevant <span class="hlt">international</span> technical communities. Over 130 delegates from 15 countries were in attendance. The program opened with a panel discussion, followed by technical paper sessions, and guided tours of the National Transonic Facility (NTF) wind tunnel, a local commercial balance fabrication facility, and the LaRC balance calibration laboratory. The opening panel discussion addressed "Future Trends in Balance Development and Applications." Forty-six technical papers were presented in 11 technical sessions covering the following areas: calibration, automatic calibration, data reduction, facility reports, design, accuracy and uncertainty analysis, <span class="hlt">strain</span> gauges, instrumentation, balance design, thermal effects, finite element analysis, applications, and special balances. At the conclusion of the Symposium, a steering committee representing most of the nations and several U.S. organizations attending the Symposium was established to initiate planning for a second <span class="hlt">international</span> balance symposium, to be held in 1999 in the UK.</p> </li> <li> <p><span>Integration of new alternative <span class="hlt">reference</span> <span class="hlt">strain</span> genome sequences into the Saccharomyces genome database.</span></p> <p>PubMed</p> <p>Song, Giltae; Balakrishnan, Rama; Binkley, Gail; Costanzo, Maria C; Dalusag, Kyla; Demeter, Janos; Engel, Stacia; Hellerstedt, Sage T; Karra, Kalpana; Hitz, Benjamin C; Nash, Robert S; Paskov, Kelley; Sheppard, Travis; Skrzypek, Marek; Weng, Shuai; Wong, Edith; Michael Cherry, J</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD; http://www.yeastgenome.org/) is the authoritative community resource for the Saccharomyces cerevisiae <span class="hlt">reference</span> genome sequence and its annotation. To provide a wider scope of genetic and phenotypic variation in yeast, the genome sequences and their corresponding annotations from 11 alternative S. cerevisiae <span class="hlt">reference</span> <span class="hlt">strains</span> have been integrated into SGD. Genomic and protein sequence information for genes from these <span class="hlt">strains</span> are now available on the Sequence and Protein tab of the corresponding Locus Summary pages. We illustrate how these genome sequences can be utilized to aid our understanding of <span class="hlt">strain</span>-specific functional and phenotypic differences.Database URL: www.yeastgenome.org.</p> </li> <li> <p><span>39 CFR 20.1 - <span class="hlt">International</span> Mail Manual; incorporation by <span class="hlt">reference</span>.</span></p> <p>Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false <span class="hlt">International</span> Mail Manual; incorporation by <span class="hlt">reference</span>. 20.1 Section 20.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE <span class="hlt">INTERNATIONAL</span> MAIL <span class="hlt">INTERNATIONAL</span> POSTAL SERVICE § 20.1 <span class="hlt">International</span> Mail Manual; incorporation by <span class="hlt">reference</span>. (a) Section 552(a) of...</p> </li> <li> <p><span>39 CFR 20.1 - <span class="hlt">International</span> Mail Manual; incorporation by <span class="hlt">reference</span>.</span></p> <p>Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false <span class="hlt">International</span> Mail Manual; incorporation by <span class="hlt">reference</span>. 20.1 Section 20.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE <span class="hlt">INTERNATIONAL</span> MAIL <span class="hlt">INTERNATIONAL</span> POSTAL SERVICE § 20.1 <span class="hlt">International</span> Mail Manual; incorporation by <span class="hlt">reference</span>. (a) Section 552(a) of...</p> </li> <li> <p><span>39 CFR 20.1 - <span class="hlt">International</span> Mail Manual; incorporation by <span class="hlt">reference</span>.</span></p> <p>Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false <span class="hlt">International</span> Mail Manual; incorporation by <span class="hlt">reference</span>. 20.1 Section 20.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE <span class="hlt">INTERNATIONAL</span> MAIL <span class="hlt">INTERNATIONAL</span> POSTAL SERVICE § 20.1 <span class="hlt">International</span> Mail Manual; incorporation by <span class="hlt">reference</span>. (a) Section 552(a) of...</p> </li> <li> <p><span>39 CFR 20.1 - <span class="hlt">International</span> Mail Manual; incorporation by <span class="hlt">reference</span>.</span></p> <p>Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false <span class="hlt">International</span> Mail Manual; incorporation by <span class="hlt">reference</span>. 20.1 Section 20.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE <span class="hlt">INTERNATIONAL</span> MAIL <span class="hlt">INTERNATIONAL</span> POSTAL SERVICE § 20.1 <span class="hlt">International</span> Mail Manual; incorporation by <span class="hlt">reference</span>. (a) Section 552(a) of...</p> </li> <li> <p><span>39 CFR 20.1 - <span class="hlt">International</span> Mail Manual; incorporation by <span class="hlt">reference</span>.</span></p> <p>Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false <span class="hlt">International</span> Mail Manual; incorporation by <span class="hlt">reference</span>. 20.1 Section 20.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE <span class="hlt">INTERNATIONAL</span> MAIL <span class="hlt">INTERNATIONAL</span> POSTAL SERVICE § 20.1 <span class="hlt">International</span> Mail Manual; incorporation by <span class="hlt">reference</span>. (a) Section 552(a) of...</p> </li> <li> <p><span><span class="hlt">Internal</span> dosimetry estimates using voxelized <span class="hlt">reference</span> phantoms for thyroid agents</span></p> <p>PubMed Central</p> <p>Hoseinian-Azghadi, E.; Rafat-Motavalli, L.; Miri-Hakimabad, H.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This work presents <span class="hlt">internal</span> dosimetry estimates for diagnostic procedures performed for thyroid disorders by relevant radiopharmaceuticals. The organ doses for 131Iodine, 123Iodine and 99mTc incorporated into the body were calculated for the <span class="hlt">International</span> Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) <span class="hlt">reference</span> voxel phantoms using the Monte Carlo transport method. A comparison between different thyroid uptakes of iodine in the range of 0–55% was made, and the effect of various techniques for administration of 99mTc on organ doses was studied. To investigate the necessity of calculating organ dose from all source regions, the major source organ and its contribution to total dose were specified for each target organ. Moreover, we compared effective dose in ICRP voxel phantoms with that in stylized phantoms. In our method, we directly calculated the organ dose without using the S values or SAFs, as is commonly done. Hence, a distribution of the absorbed dose to entire tissues was obtained. The chord length distributions (CLDs) were also computed for the selected source–target pairs to make comparison across the genders. The results showed that the S values for radionuclides in the thyroid are not sufficient for calculating the organ doses, especially for 123I and 99mTc. The thyroid and its neighboring organs receive a greater dose as thyroid uptake increases. Our comparisons also revealed an underestimation of organ doses reported for the stylized phantoms compared with the values based on the ICRP voxel phantoms in the uptake range of 5–55%, and an overestimation of absorbed dose by up to 2-fold for Iodine administration using blocking agent and for 99mTc incorporation. PMID:24222311</p> </li> <li> <p><span><span class="hlt">Internal</span> dosimetry estimates using voxelized <span class="hlt">reference</span> phantoms for thyroid agents.</span></p> <p>PubMed</p> <p>Hoseinian-Azghadi, E; Rafat-Motavalli, L; Miri-Hakimabad, H</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>This work presents <span class="hlt">internal</span> dosimetry estimates for diagnostic procedures performed for thyroid disorders by relevant radiopharmaceuticals. The organ doses for (131)Iodine, (123)Iodine and (99m)Tc incorporated into the body were calculated for the <span class="hlt">International</span> Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) <span class="hlt">reference</span> voxel phantoms using the Monte Carlo transport method. A comparison between different thyroid uptakes of iodine in the range of 0-55% was made, and the effect of various techniques for administration of (99m)Tc on organ doses was studied. To investigate the necessity of calculating organ dose from all source regions, the major source organ and its contribution to total dose were specified for each target organ. Moreover, we compared effective dose in ICRP voxel phantoms with that in stylized phantoms. In our method, we directly calculated the organ dose without using the S values or SAFs, as is commonly done. Hence, a distribution of the absorbed dose to entire tissues was obtained. The chord length distributions (CLDs) were also computed for the selected source-target pairs to make comparison across the genders. The results showed that the S values for radionuclides in the thyroid are not sufficient for calculating the organ doses, especially for (123)I and (99m)Tc. The thyroid and its neighboring organs receive a greater dose as thyroid uptake increases. Our comparisons also revealed an underestimation of organ doses reported for the stylized phantoms compared with the values based on the ICRP voxel phantoms in the uptake range of 5-55%, and an overestimation of absorbed dose by up to 2-fold for Iodine administration using blocking agent and for (99m)Tc incorporation.</p> </li> <li> <p><span>Nitric oxide levels regulate the immune response of Drosophila melanogaster <span class="hlt">reference</span> laboratory <span class="hlt">strains</span> to bacterial infections.</span></p> <p>PubMed</p> <p>Eleftherianos, Ioannis; More, Kareen; Spivack, Stephanie; Paulin, Ethan; Khojandi, Arman; Shukla, Sajala</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Studies on the innate immune response against microbial infections in Drosophila melanogaster involve mutant <span class="hlt">strains</span> and their <span class="hlt">reference</span> <span class="hlt">strains</span> that act as experimental controls. We used five standard D. melanogaster laboratory <span class="hlt">reference</span> <span class="hlt">strains</span> (Oregon R, w1118, Canton-S, Cinnabar Brown, and Yellow White [YW]) and investigated their response against two pathogenic bacteria (Photorhabdus luminescens and Enterococcus faecalis) and two nonpathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli and Micrococcus luteus). We detected high sensitivity among YW flies to bacterial infections and increased bacterial growth compared to the other <span class="hlt">strains</span>. We also found variation in the transcription of certain antimicrobial peptide genes among <span class="hlt">strains</span>, with Oregon and YW infected flies showing the highest and lowest gene transcription levels in most cases. We show that Oregon and w1118 flies possess more circulating hemocytes and higher levels of phenoloxidase activity than the other <span class="hlt">strains</span> upon infection with the nonpathogenic bacteria. We further observed reduced fat accumulation in YW flies infected with the pathogenic bacteria, which suggests a possible decline in physiological condition. Finally, we found that nitrite levels are significantly lower in infected and uninfected YW flies compared to w1118 flies and that nitric o vphigldc. <a href="http://www.link-shop.it/fngtdjsc"><strong>réplique de montres d'occasion</strong></a>xide synthase mutant flies in YW background are more susceptible to bacterial infection compared to mutants in w1118 background. Therefore, increased sensitivity of YW flies to bacterial infections can be partly attributed to lower levels of nitric oxide. Such studies will significantly contribute toward a better understanding of the genetic variation between D. melanogaster <span class="hlt">reference</span> <span class="hlt">strains</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><span>Nitric Oxide Levels Regulate the Immune Response of Drosophila melanogaster <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Laboratory <span class="hlt">Strains</span> to Bacterial Infections</span></p> <p>PubMed Central</p> <p>More, Kareen; Spivack, Stephanie; Paulin, Ethan; Khojandi, Arman; Shukla, Sajala</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Studies on the innate immune response against microbial infections in Drosophila melanogaster involve mutant <span class="hlt">strains</span> and their <span class="hlt">reference</span> <span class="hlt">strains</span> that act as experimental controls. We used five standard D. melanogaster laboratory <span class="hlt">reference</span> <span class="hlt">strains</span> (Oregon R, w1118, Canton-S, Cinnabar Brown, and Yellow White [YW]) and investigated their response against two pathogenic bacteria (Photorhabdus luminescens and Enterococcus faecalis) and two nonpathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli and Micrococcus luteus). We detected high sensitivity among YW flies to bacterial infections and increased bacterial growth compared to the other <span class="hlt">strains</span>. We also found variation in the transcription of certain antimicrobial peptide genes among <span class="hlt">strains</span>, with Oregon and YW infected flies showing the highest and lowest gene transcription levels in most cases. We show that Oregon and w1118 flies possess more circulating hemocytes and higher levels of phenoloxidase activity than the other <span class="hlt">strains</span> upon infection with the nonpathogenic bacteria. We further observed reduced fat accumulation in YW flies infected with the pathogenic bacteria, which suggests a possible decline in physiological condition. Finally, we found that nitrite levels are significantly lower in infected and uninfected YW flies compared to w1118 flies and that nitric oxide synthase mutant flies in YW background are more susceptible to bacterial infection compared to mutants in w1118 background. Therefore, increased sensitivity of YW flies to bacterial infections can be partly attributed to lower levels of nitric oxide. Such studies will significantly contribute toward a better understanding of the genetic variation between D. melanogaster <span class="hlt">reference</span> <span class="hlt">strains</span>. PMID:25047850</p> </li> <li> <p><span>The <span class="hlt">International</span> DORIS Service contribution to the 2014 realization of the <span class="hlt">International</span> Terrestrial <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Frame</span></p> <p>NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</p> <p>Moreaux, Guilhem; Lemoine, Frank G.; Capdeville, Hugues; Kuzin, Sergey; Otten, Michiel; Štěpánek, Petr; Willis, Pascal; Ferrage, Pascale</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>In preparation of the 2014 realization of the <span class="hlt">International</span> Terrestrial <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Frame (ITRF2014), the <span class="hlt">International</span> DORIS Service delivered to the <span class="hlt">International</span> Earth Rotation and <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Systems Service a set of 1140 weekly solution files including station coordinates and Earth orientation parameters, covering the time period from 1993.0 to 2015.0. The data come from eleven DORIS satellites: TOPEX/Poseidon, SPOT2, SPOT3, SPOT4, SPOT5, Envisat, Jason-1, Jason-2, Cryosat-2, Saral and HY-2A. In their processing, the six analysis centers which contributed to the DORIS combined solution used the latest time variable gravity models and estimated DORIS ground beacon frequency variations. Furthermore, all the analysis centers but one excepted included in their processing phase center variations for ground antennas. The main objective of this study is to present the combination process and to analyze the impact of the new modeling on the performance of the new combined solution. Comparisons with the IDS contribution to ITRF2008 show that (i) the application of the DORIS ground phase center variations in the data processing shifts the combined scale upward by nearly 7-11 mm and (ii) thanks to estimation of DORIS ground beacon frequency variations, the new combined solution no longer shows any scale discontinuity in early 2002 and does not present unexplained vertical discontinuities in any station position time series. However, analysis of the new series with respect to ITRF2008 exhibits a scale increase late 2011 which is not yet explained. A new DORIS Terrestrial <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Frame was computed to evaluate the intrinsic quality of the new combined solution. That evaluation shows that the addition of data from the new missions equipped with the latest generation of DORIS receiver (Jason-2, Cryosat-2, HY-2A, Saral), results in an <span class="hlt">internal</span> position consistency of 10 mm or better after mid-2008.</p> </li> <li> <p><span>Intended use of <span class="hlt">reference</span> products & WHO <span class="hlt">International</span> Standards/<span class="hlt">Reference</span> Reagents in the development of similar biological products (biosimilars).</span></p> <p>PubMed</p> <p>Thorpe, Robin; Wadhwa, Meenu</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Reference</span> Products and WHO <span class="hlt">International</span> Standards/<span class="hlt">Reference</span> Reagents have roles to play in the development and characterization of similar biological products (SBPs). However, these roles are distinct and non-interchangeable. The uses of these materials and their limitations are considered in this paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><span>The <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Ionosphere - Climatological Standard for the Ionosphere</span></p> <p>NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</p> <p>Bilitza, Dieter</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">International</span> <span class="hlt">Reference</span> Ionosphere (IRI) a joint project of URSI and COSPAR is the defacto standard for a climatological specification of ionospheric parameters. IRI is based on a wide range of ground and space data and has been steadily improved since its inception in 1969 with the ever-increasing volume of ionospheric data and with better mathematical descriptions of the observed global and temporal variation patterns. The IRI model has been validated with a large amount of data including data from the most recent ionospheric satellites (KOMPSAT, ROCSAT and TIMED) and data from global network of ionosondes. Several IRI teams are working on specific aspects of the IRI modeling effort including an improved representation of the topside ionosphere with a seamless transition to the plasmasphere, a new effort to represent the global variation of F2 peak parameters using the Neural Network (NN) technique, and the inclusion of several additional parameters in IRI, e.g., spread-F probability and ionospheric variability. Annual IRI workshops are the forum for discussions of these efforts and for all science activities related to IRI as well as applications of the IRI model in engineering and education. In this paper I will present a status report about the IRI effort with special emphasis on the presentations and results from the most recent IRI Workshops (Paris, 2004; Tortosa, 2005) and on the most important ongoing IRI activities. I will discuss the latest version of the IRI model, IRI-2006, highlighting the most recent changes and additions. Finally, the talk will review some of the applications of the IRI model with special emphasis on the use for radiowave propagation studies and communication purposes.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li>«</li> <li>1</li> <li>2</li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li>4</li> <li>5</li> <li>»</li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> </div> <br><img src="http://miniimg6.rightinthebox.com/images/384x384/201508/xqqpoq1438825135874.jpg" alt="mænds ure"><br> <br><a href="http://www.link-shop.it/zwdzzqjo"><b>damer mode ure</b></a> <br><a href="http://www.link-shop.it/llixarwh"><b>hvide ure til mænd</b></a> <br><a href="http://www.link-shop.it/cucttjuk"><b>replika omega speedmaster professionell</b></a> <form><div><td><tr><table><div><div><div> <div id="head"> <div id="head_right"> <div id="head_right_top"> </div> <div id="head_right_bottom"> <div id="head_right_bottom_left"> Welcome! 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